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essay of war against terrorism

essay of war against terrorismEssay of war against terrorism -These considerations do not completely undercut Ehrenreich's insight (above).Yet, as we have defined it here -- as the attempt to distinguish between ethical justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces -- one might take a utilitarian approach to just war theory instead. Murray Rothbard sketches a libertarian approach in his essay on "Just War," Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1994.Relevant biblical passages are found in both the old Hebrew scriptures and the Christian New Testament, which means that just war theory belongs (in part) to a broader Judeo-Christian tradition. RECENT UPDATES (as of 6/12/2017): Introducing the Ethical War Blog of the Stockholm Center for the Ethics of War and Peace; The Center for Military Ethics at King's College London hosts a terrific educational resource! Just war theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces.(6/17/07) Contrary to Barbara Ehrenreich's argument against simplistic biological accounts of the nature of war (above), Steven A. " that it makes perfectly good sense to think of warfare as something that is caused by complex interactions between human biology and limited environmental resources. Westing, Warwick Fox, and Michael Renner further examine the environmental dimension of warfare in "Environmental Degradation as Both Consequence and Cause of Armed Conflict," Nobel Peace Laureate Forum, June 2001.Many pre-Christian thinkers -- including Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Cato the Younger, Seneca, Polybius and Sallust, to name but a few -- distinguished between just and unjust grounds for waging war, and between just and unjust conduct in the course of war.His theory of war [see CLASSICS section below] will apply to all modes of armed conflict in the future. Second, the leading driver toward, and in, war, is the political context . Mark Juergensmeyer's February 2006 lectures include reflections on "God and War: The Odd Appeal of War", in which he suggests that war is "a way of thinking and living through chaos in order to become free from it"; reflections on the question "Are We at War?Michael Walzer has voiced doubts about the viability of a Jewish "purity of arms" doctrine that has more to do with the influence of platonism via Philo of Alexandria than with any kind of well developed rabbinical casuistry of war. Further, although it is seldom recognized in the West, there is also an independent Islamic tradition of just war thinking.Contrary to facile accusations of absurdity, the idea of fighting for peace actually does make sense in theory.Ann Davis, Richard Keshen, and Jeff Mc Mahan, eds., Ethics and Humanity: Themes from the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009); "Laws of War,"in Samantha Besson and John Tasioulas, eds., The Philosophy of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); "The Morality of Military Occupation," Loyola International and Comparative Law Review (2009); "Self-Defense Against Morally Innocent Threats," and "Reply to Commentators," in Paul H.Unfortunately, however, what makes sense in theory too often fails in practice. Armed human conflicts turn out to be more complex, varied and difficult to control than something as relatively simple and predictable as fire.Just and peace-promoting war efforts are exceedingly rare in human history.In order to take a broader, more complete view of the actual harms of war, one should also consider "Some of the ways that military actions can affect the ecosystem" (by Roland Wall, Know Your Environment, February 2002).The point of wisdom in warfare is to be on the right side of the political line separating the winners from the losers, not the moral line distinguishing the just from the unjust.It is, however, the FIRST PRINCIPLE of just war theory, because the ultimate justifying aim of the resort to arms is the protection of innocent lives and this aim is usually best pursued by peaceful means.(Note that these links are to 300k Real Player files, because that's what I use.Too often, I think, the harms of war are tallied only in terms of human "casualities," the injuries and deaths that are suffered as a direct result of military action.Richard Norman has done this in his book, Ethics, Killing, and War, Cambridge University Press, 1995.Just War is a free, non-profit, critically annotated aid to philosophical studies of warfare. ; Review of Rosenbaum's How the [Nuclear] End Begins, with interested chapter on a recent close call; Review of Kinsella's Critical history of the combatant/civilian distinction; Segev reviews Hoffman's Anonymous Soldiers; Review of Kilcullen's Counterinsurgency; "Anscombe on war and murder; Fabre on Kamm's Moral Target; Van der Linden reviews Williams on Kant; Mc Mahan on rethinking JWT; Brunstetter on just drone warfare; Moyn reviews Dudziak; Cunliffe on humanitarian intervention; Pape on suicide terrorism; Crenshaw on suicide terrorism; Nussbaum on Kant's cosmopolitanism; New section on jus post bellum; Anderson on drones; Kanwar on drones ... War in Afghanistan War in Libya MORE PAGES: Book Reviews (updated 12/28/11)Secondary Studies Allies JWT-shirts Editorial Policy JWT Blog: 8/5/2011: Sherman on survivor guilt; 8/5/2011: U. Military spending and the budget deal; 8/3/2011: CIA releases its Official History of the Bay of Pigs Operation . Unfamiliar with the basic terms of analysis and debate?The dichotomy between nature and nurture is best taken as representing two aspects of the causal story, rather than two mutually exclusive causal models.essay of war against terrorism(Imagine a fire that generates its own fuel.) Arguably, we should therefore promote and actively engage in it only on the rarest of occasions, excercising nearly "infinite caution" (to borrow a phrase from Edmund Burke).(Added 11/16/09, updated 4/21/15) It is sometimes said that just war theory originates from a Catholic tradition that can be traced to the writings of Thomas Aquinas and Augustine of Hippo.1 (Winter 2004): 13-18; "Unjust War in Iraq," The Pelican Record, Volume XLI, Number 5, December 2004; "Preventive War and the Killing of the Innocent," in David Rodin and Richard Sorabji, eds., The Ethics of War: Shared Problems in Different Traditions (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2005): 169-90; "Just Cause for War," Ethics and International Affairs 19, no.A just war is one fought for the sake of the pacifist's idealistic goal: lasting peace and justice.Aboul-Enein and Sherifa Zuhur, Strategic Studies Institute, October 2004.(Posted 2/12/07) In "Jus Ad Bellum After 9/11: A State of the Art Report," forthcoming in the International Political Theory Beacon, June 2007, Mark Rigstad presents an overview and critical assessment of how just war theoretic principles of just cause, discrimination, and proportionality have been applied in the Global War on Terror.Strategemata (84-96 AD) by Sextus Julius Frontinus and De Re Militari (390), by Flavius Vegetius Renatus, are examples from late Roman antiquity, highly influential in the middle ages and during the renaissance.(See the JWT Book Reviews page for a review of Temes' book, The Just War: An American Reflection on the Morality of War in Our Times." (Perameters, US Army War College Quarterly, Spring 2005), Colin S. (Posted 2/24/06) Robert Sapolsky's "A Natural History of Peace" (Foreign Affairs January/February 2006) asks "So what does primatology have to say about war and peace?For these and other reasons, just war theorists should study classic works of realpolick for their many strategic insights; and they should think about how to integrate, prioritize and balance considerations of justice and humanity with considerations of pure power politics. Julian Korab-Karpowicz's article on "Political Realism in International Relations" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.The tradition of just war theory and the international war conventions that emerged from it help us to see many of the ways in which the use of arms might be limited and controlled for the sake of international peace. Fourth and finally, one should never forget that over time all trends decline and eventually expire . (Posted 1/7/06) When it comes to economic and military foreign policy 'imperialism' is a dirty word.Among other parts, chapter XIII of Leviathan (1651) contains Thomas Hobbes's philosophical repudiation of Grotius's attempt to distinguish between just and unjust wars. Hegel's theory of warfare occupies an interesting space between realpolitik and Christian philosophy, as explicated here by Andrew Fiala's "The Vanity of Temporal Things: Hegel and the Ethics of War," Studies in the History of Ethics, February 2006.It suggests that in reality warfare is not shaped or guided by ethical considerations, which is obviously empirically false. Philosophically, just war theory is commonly understood to represent a middle way between, on the one hand, realpolitik's narrow focus on strategies of pure national self-interest, and, on the other hand, absolute pacifism's sometimes impracticable idealism.So, in order to understand the difficulty of conceiving of any ethically justifiable wars, it's a good idea to start by thinking long and hard about what's wrong with killing if and when it is wrong.(Posted 8/31/07) It is vacuous to say that the use of armed force is proportionate only when it does more good than harm unless one can also say something about the full range of things that can count as ethically relevant goods and harms.Gray argues for the following broad realpolitik conclusions: "First, the objective nature of war, as Clausewitz put it, is not changing at all. " Sapolsky's finding: "Contrary to what was believed just a few decades ago, humans are not "killer apes" destined for violent conflict, but can make their own history." (3/3/06) Princeton's Web Media page includes several good, accessible philosophical video lectures on warfare.(Added 5/30/07) And here are online versions of some of his articles: "Innocence, Self-Defense & Killing in War," The Journal of Political Philosophy 2, no.The use of the term "political realism" to name this philosophical orientation may be misleading. If realpolitik without awareness of the influence of just war theory is insufficiently realistic, just war theory without an adequate appreciation of realpolitik is at risk of becoming excessively idealistic.Although these figures and the traditions of thought associated with them are highly important and influential (See James Turner Johnson's overview), any sectarian expropriation of just war theory is historically unsupportable.Even so, Arye Edrei finds a separate source of just war thinking in the efforts of Israel's first chief military Rabbi to "create a modern corpus of Jewish law and ethics relating to war and the military." See Edrei's "Spirit and Power: Rabbi Shlomo Goren and the Military Ethic of the Israel Defence Force," Theoretical Inquiries in Law, Vol. For a useful introduction to this tradition, see "Islamic Rulings on Warfare," by Youssef H. essay of war against terrorism Moreover, as Barbara Ehrenreich explains in her essay on "The Roots of War", warfare tends to engender more warfare.If you use different software or need something slower, look for alternatives on the Web Media page.) (Posted 4/24/06) "Whenever it is right to resist an assault by force, it must then be allowable to do so by guile." So says Sissela Bok in Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, and most ethicists would likely agree.For a review of the state of intelligence studies as an academic sub-discipline of international relations, see Gustavo Diaz Matey's "Intelligence Studies at the Dawn of the 21st Century: New Possibilities and Resources for a Recent Topic in International Relations," UNISCI Discussion Papers, May 2005.3 (October 2007); "The Morality of War and the Law of War," in David Rodin and Henry Shue, eds., Just and Unjust Warriors: The Legal and Moral Status of Soldiers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2008); "Justification and Liability in War," Journal of Political Philosophy 16, no.2, special issue: "Just and Unjust Wars: Thirty Years On" (2007): 91-106; "Precis of The Morality and Law of War," Israel Law Review 40, no.(Posted 11/5/04) For more on this important topic, see the Jus Post Bellum section below. [and] that a major source of trouble lurks beyond the power of prediction in Secretary Rumsfeld's concept of the 'unknown unknowns.'" (Posted 4/2/05) Richard Falk offers a very lucid reflection on the history of the political ethics of warfare from the first world war to the post-9/11 era in this video lecture from San Diego State University's Institute for Ethics and Public Affairs, March 9, 2004.Consider, for example, Jeremy Bentham's treatment of war. Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977) is the consensus favorite to join the pantheon of modern classics in just war theory.For this reason, Vincent Ferraro's introductory statement of the conventional Principles of the Just War is exemplary.Yet, to achieve this goal, the just war theorist must be realistically concerned with achieving victory and avoiding defeat.The Carnegie Council has published a transcript of Walzer's general lecture with Q&A about his more recent book, Arguing about War.3 (October 2007); "Contrasting Approaches to War: Some Thoughts on the Views of Fletcher, Segev, Shany, and Zohar," Israel Law Review 40, no.(Posted 7/16/06, updated 4/28/07) Realpolitik: From the perspective of realpolitik, or "political realism," armed conflicts are essentially struggles for power to which ethical norms do not apply.Moreover, speedy victories often come with humanitarian gains.The theoretical task of the just war theorist is to figure out what sets the ethically acceptable and laudable examples apart from the rest.It is owned and maintained by Mark Rigstad, Associate Professor and Chair of Philosophy at Oakland University (a "Military Friendly School") that offers in-state tuition to all U. TOPICS ON THIS MAIN PAGE (click to jump down): Intro to Just War Theory Classics of Just War Theory Classics of Realpolitik Classics of Pacifism Terrorism & Counter-terrorism Non-Combatant Immunity Rights of Enemy Combatants Humanitarian Intervention Civil War War Criminals & Trials Jus Post Bellum General Resources on War RELATED TOPICS: Nationalism & Cosmopolitanism Global Society & Hegemony Drones ON U. Then check out the BBC's introduction to the ethics of warfare, or (for more detailed introductions) read Brian Orend's excellent introduction to the topic of "war" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and/or Alexander Moseley's entry on "just war theory" in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.Kenneth Waltz's article on "Structural Realism after the Cold War," International Security, Volume 25, Number 1, Summer 2000, pp.In some ways, however, this tradition (as with every tradition) fails to provide us with complete, reliable guidance for contending with present and future political realities. Baines argues, "The future of peacekeeping missions will be focused on activities and objectives not anticipated by the framers and developers of traditional Laws of War." (Posted 11/5/04) In "How Has War Changed Since the End of the Cold War? Dissenters at home and abroad often condemn war mongers as 'imperialists'. Michael Parenti offers an explanation in "Imperialism 101.2 & 3 (2006): 241-48; "Killing in War: a Reply to Walzer," Philosophia 34 (2006): 47-51; "Liability and Collective Identity: A Response to Walzer," Philosophia 34 (2006): 13-17; "On the Moral Equality of Combatants," Journal of Political Philosophy 14, no. Goodin, Philip Pettit, and Thomas Pogge, eds., A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, 2nd edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007); "The Sources and Status of Just War Principles," Journal of Military Ethics 6, no." Also available from Princeton are videos of Arun Gandhi's November 2001 discussion of the power of nonviolence in "Terrorism, Nonviolence, and Justice"; and Jean Bethke Elshtain's October 2001 plea for a strong military response to 9-11 in "Just War and Military Intervention".There is no more contradiction in waging war to keep warfare in check than there is in fighting fire with fire (which firefighters do all the time). as "the war to end all war." Yet, the world has seen a lot of warfare since the end of WWI, some of it in more or less direct consequence of that war. essay of war against terrorism The 2009 PBS Frontline documentary Rules of Engagement looks at how one controversial day in the life of a handful of Marines in Haditha led to a significant change in the U. (Posted 11/26/11) In addition to jus ad bellum and jus in bello considerations, just war theorists are also concerned that warfare should be suspended and settled in ways that help to prevent more of the same.Here is his video keynote address on the subject of pacifism for the 2nd On-line Philosophy Conference (OPC2) on May 21, 2007.To hear what he has to say about the topic, listen to this BBC/Open2podcast.(Updated 5/1/05) And in his excellent (more advanced than introductory) article on "Proportionality in the Morality of War," Philosophy & Public Affairs, Volume 33, Number 1, 2005, Thomas Hurka argues that the principle of last resort is reducible to the requirement that the morally relevant harms of just warfare should be "proportionate" in the sense that they must not outweigh the morally relevant benefits.The importance of the principle of last resort is not entirely uncontroversial, however. Temes, for one, argues that the experiences of the 20th century, especially WWII and the war in former Yugoslavia, should lead us to abandon the principle of last resort.So, instead of allowing some traditional, popular or conventionally accepted notions tell you what is required to justify the use of lethal armed forces, let your first lesson in just war theory be one that you teach yourself in a simple reflective exercise: Start by thinking of a paradigm case or prime example from history which strikes you intuitively as being an instance of an ethically acceptable, or perhaps even laudable use of armed forces. If you can neither think of a single example in history, nor imagine any possible future instances of the justifiable use of lethal arms, then you may be an absolute pacifist.The Athenian side of the "Melian Dialogue"(431 BC) from Thucydides' History of The Peloponnesian War presents one of the earliest articulations of realpolitik philosophy in western civilization.(Updated 5/2/2011) Just war theories attempt to conceive of how the use of arms might be restrained, made more humane, and ultimately directed towards the aim of establishing lasting peace and justice.(Posted 8/30/05) Just war theorists have traditionally concerned themselves with the grounds for going to war in the first place (i.e.5-41, is an important defense of the continued relevance of realpolitik for any adequate understanding of the phenomena of war and peace in international relations.Follow these links to read Francisco de Victoria's classic relectiones (1557) "On the Indians" and "On the Law of War"), Hugo Grotius's erudite and systematic masterpiece on the The Laws of War and Peace (1625), Book X of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws (1748), Emmerich de Vattel's treatise on the Law of Nations (1758), and Immanuel Kant's essay on "Perpetual Peace" (1795).Warfare occurs as a result of complex biological and environmental causes, AND it is also fueled by the development of war-making industries, institutions and mentalities.(Added 12/13/09)Pacifism: If, as just war theorists maintain, the use of arms is justifiable only as a last resort for the resolution of conflicts, then it is incumbent upon anyone who would propose a just war already to have studied, and to have exhaustively considered or pursued, the full range of non-violent alternatives.If you can think of some limited class of ethically condemnable instances or forms of warfare, and your head is swimming with great examples of ethically acceptable and even laudable warfare, then you may be a relatively hawkish just war theorist.Niccolo Machiavelli's The Art of War (1520), Napoleon Boneparte's Maxims of War (1827), Carl von Clauswitz's treatise On War (1832), and Baron de Jomini's Art of War (1862) are also considered modern European classics of realpolitik thinking about armed conflict. (Updated 11/30/06) In "Game Theory, Political Economy, and the Evolving Study of War and Peace," American Political Science Review, November 2006, Bruce Bueno de Mesquita describes how recent neo-realist studies of war and peace have advanced beyond classical realpolitik assumptions by combining noncooperative game theory with political economy models of leadership behavior.If you cannot think of a single ethically condemnable act of warfare, and you "love the smell of napalm in the morning," then you may belong to the realpolitik camp.3 (2005): 1-21.; "Torture, Morality, and Law," Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 37, nos.P The Just War Tradition: Every educated citizen should reflect on the pre-modern, proto-modern, and modern classics of the just war tradition.The now canonical 20th century statement of strategic realism on the insurgent side of asymetrical warfare is Ernesto Che Guevara's Guerilla Warfare. For an influential statement of realpolitik from the Cold War era, check out this excerpt from Hans Morganthau's Politics Among Nations.As Brian Orend suggests, we must also concern ourselves with "Justice After War". essay of war against terrorism Relevant biblical passages are found in both the old Hebrew scriptures and the Christian New Testament, which means that just war theory belongs (in part) to a broader Judeo-Christian tradition. essay of war against terrorism




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