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essay hoover institution optional other press publication reality

essay hoover institution optional other press publication realityEssay hoover institution optional other press publication reality -Others thought that eating red meat, meaning rare, was synonymous with being a genuinely red-blooded American... The fact is that there are national kitchens that perfer meat rare and those that prefer it exceedingly well done... Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness. Naturally there were serious problems in keeping the meat fresh, since mechanical refrigeration was unavailable. Generally, we like meat to e tender and juicy rather than tough and dry. Tough cuts are best heated for a prolonged period at temperatures approaching the boil, usually by stewing, braising, or slow-roasting." ---On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of The Kitchen, Harold Mc Gee, completely revised and updated [Scribner: New York] 2004 (p. And its moisture manifests itself if slipperiness; chewing doesn't manage to liberate much juice. As it cooks, meat develops a firmness and resiliance that make it easier to chew. With longer cooking, the juices dry up, and resiliance give way to a dry stiffness. should be underdone or what the Americans call rare. But to some persons the term well done is associated with the degree of cookery, that is, the separation of the muscle fibers due to formation of gelatin from the connective tissue. 29-30) [16th-17th century France] "In 1560 Bruyerin avowed that he had 'more than once' seen '[half-cooked meats devoured so that blood almost flowed from the mouths of those who were eating. Simple physical damage to the muscle fibers causes them to release more of their fluids and therefore more stimulating substances for the tongue. Meats roasted on open fires released pleasing aromas, enhanced product flavor, and made the food easier to chew. Ancient western peoples so valued cooked meats that consuming anything raw was considered "barbarian." In the earliest days of civilization, most animals were kept for work (oxen to plough), textiles goods (sheep for wool), and sustainable edible products (cows and goats for milk & cheese; chickens for eggs). Slow cooking in some kind of broth rendered these tough sinews edible. Certain meats were "prescribed" for boiling or roasting, according to their inherent humoral nature. Online text [1919] "-And when you sit down to a big, thick, juicy, medium rare steak, flanked by some delicately browned potatoes..." ---display ad, Wilson's Certified Catsup and Chili Sauce, Wall Street Journal, May 19, 1919 (p. Roasting, the application of direct heat at close proximity, was appropriate for a cold, moist meat such as pork because the open fire would warm and dry.Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion. 21st century American meat eaters continue to enjoy their meats from tartar to well. 384 Let him be fed with thin Panada, Water and Barly-grewels, Chicken or other small Broath, Harts-horn Jelly, sometimes a rear poach'd or a new laid Egg. Renaissance European chefs resdiscovered and promoted this dictum. Ancient Greeks and Roman physicians "prescribed" cooking methods by humoral theory. With the exception of hogs, domesticated animals were slaughtered and consumed after they outlived their usefulness. Soups, stews, slow cooked casseroles & braizes were the norm. Fables 267 He was accustomed to Bolt his Food,and let the Fried Sweets come along with the Medium Sirline. The usual household method of attaining these different degrees by allowing for the time of cooking, a definite number of minutes for each pound of meat contained in the roast, while reliable to some extent, is not sufficiently accurate for careful investigations. Heat penetrates slowly intp the minterior of a large piece of meat, and the center of the meat, unless very much over-cooked, never attains as high a temperature as the meat near the surface. Grindly and Sprague have suggested, for convenience, that meat with an interior temperatue at its center of 60 degrees C. Such meats are juicier than meats cooked well done. A7, Egges newly laid, are nutritiue to eat, And rosted Reere are easie to digest. Grilled hops and steaks may be just right at the center but dry elsewhere; long-braised pot roasts and stews are often dry throughout." ---On Food and Cooking (p.essay hoover institution optional other press publication reality Fat coats and lubricates meat fibers during cooking, and stimulates the flow of saliva and creates the sensation of juiciness no matter hwo dry the meat fibers themselves have become. Eleanor Scully & Terence Scully [University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor] 1995 (p.233-234) [20th century USA] "Steak should be cut at least 1 1/2 inches thick. Sprinkle both sides with sald and spread with butter or good fat.For medium done allow a few minutes extra." ---Cooking A La Ritz, Louis Diat [J. Years ago, a great deal more was made of the matter, as there were those who felt that rare meat was fit only for cannibals. A grill was convenient for flat meats, a spit for larger cuts. in Elia 28 The same flesh, rotten-roasted or rare, on the Tuesdays. [1942] "To obtain the epicure's rare beef, the internal temprature of the cut during roasting should be only 123 degrees Fahrenheit.The lamb of France is quite tender and can be eaten with pleasure if it is not cooked to the well-cone state.Oxford English Dictionary RARE Etymology: Originally a variant of rear adj.1 As a result of the lowering influence of r on preceding vowels in southern varieties of English, rear remained homophonous with rare adj.1 at least as late as the 17th cent. This gave rise to the variant rare, which retained the early modern pronunciation in standard English (compare the current pronunciation of e.g. (3)...rawer meats are conduucive to vigor but in fact rather poor for the digestion.' Because bloody meat was thought to increase one's vitality and zest, eating half-raw meat became intertwined with the goal of arousing the body at table." ---Acquired Taste: The French Origins of Modern Cooking, T. Rare meat also has more of the original meat flavor than well-done meat, for not so much of the fluids and extractives giving flavor to the meat have been lost. Grindley and Sprague have suggested that meat that has reached an inner temprature of 60 to 70 degrees C. There the color also varies with the temperature of cooking, the degree to which the meat has been ripened, and in some instances with the age of the animal and the kind of meat. Meat was oven-roasted, spit-roasted, used in patties, stuffings, and stews, or...cooked on a grill... Grilling, frying, and roasting are the usual fast methods.Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings. What may seem rare to one person, is medium rare to another, while it is not at all uncommon to have meat that is actually raw offered as rare. The meat passes from one stage to another gradually, so that there is no definite end point. Under such conditions, considerable variations may occur in the degree of cooking, and it has already been shown ' that the percentages of the original constituents of the raw meat which are removed by cooking depend on this factor." ---A Precise Method of Roasting Beef, Grindley, H. Nearly all the interior may be a bright red color or only a small portion around the center of the meat may be red. If the ignorant cook were to subject beef to a roasting, so further drying its already dry nature, this could be quite dangerous to the unfortunate person who was to eat it later, and could even put him or her at risk of an attack of melancholia or a bilous upset. It was salted, smoked, and even preserved in honey... Before the days of reliable refrigeration, most meats were preserved. Cooking intensifies the taste of meat and creates its aroma. This may also be true of beef that has ripened sufficiently... The ideal method for cooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion of tough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin. essay hoover institution optional other press publication reality To my mind, there is a simple explanation for these cooking preferences. The meat may be cooked until it reaches a temperature far above 71 degrees C., often from 80 to 85 degrees C.95) [20th century France] "Broiling is the procedure best suited to preserving the basic taste of red meats. G.iii, Newe reare rosted egges be good in the mornynge. Tender cuts are best heated rapidly and just to the point of their juices are in full flow. For medium-done it is 132 degrees and for well-done it is 148 to 154. Thermometer readings: Beef, rare, 140 degrees; medium, 160 degrees; well done, 170 degrees." ---Joy of Cooking, Irma S. 201) [NOTE: this chart is not included in the original 1931 edition.] [1939] Prudence Penny's Cookbook's chapter on cooking meat offers broiling chart (p. Meats were cooked with one general goal: make them edible. Formerly often regarded as an Americanism (see quot. In pre-industrial times fresh meat was a priviledge enjoyed by the wealthiest classes.I have observed, both in this country and in Greece, that the Grecian method of preparing a leg of lamb also involves a good many hours of cooking and that the Greeks prefer the meat quite well done... The leading lights like eef wee cooked, though some of them nevertheless devour it bloody after the fashion on the Cyclops. 20 I've devoured rare porterhouse and roast beef day after day for weeks. Of meat: cooked to a degree between well done and rare. Rare and medium well-done meats are probably more often associated with the color of the cooked meat. 1626 Bacon Sylva Sylvarum 53 Eggs (so they be Potched, or Reare boyled). USA government stepped in to regulate "safe" cooking temperatures.The lamb of Haiti and Greece requires that it be tenderized through one long-cooking technique or another. Modern food scientists can now explain what the ancient physicians knew. Prime cuts subjected to minimal cooking (rare, medium rare) generally offer the best aroma, flavor, and texture. The extent or uniformity of the red color depends upon the cooking temprature... A rule to be remembered is that all white meats must be thorougly cooked. This does not mean that the blood must run from them as they are carved, but that they must be pink, juicy and tender." ---Mrs. The longer a piece of meat is cooked the more the interior color changes from pink or red to gray,and the greater the cooking losses.For rare steak broil under hot fire about 8 minutes on each side for a a 1/2 inch steak, or 10 minutes on each side for a 2 inch steak. 169) "Since childhood, I have been fascinated with people's preferences about how well or little done they like red meat. The distance of both grill and spit from the flame could be regulated fairly well... 289 The meat was in all cases a little rare at its centre. for roasts and from 95 to 99 degrees for braised meat." ---Experimental Cookery, Bell Lowe [John Wiley & Sons: New York] 1932 (p. Estate France 260 A dish of Egges, rear-roasted by the flame. In the last quarter of the 20th century heat concerns regarding undercooked beef resulted from salmonell a poisoning to mad cow. essay hoover institution optional other press publication reality With veal, this stage of cookery is sometimes reached before or by the time the inner temperature has reached 71 degrees C. 198-199) [1936] "Chart for roasting meat by the modern method... Since the color of the cooked meat varies with different conditions, the division into rare, medium well-done varies on the basis of inner temperature of the meat is only an arbitrary one and not always satisfactory. 1861), although it was current in English writing from the 18th cent. Think: grand medieval feasts featuring selections of large roasts. F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance. 147-151) "Many traditional meat recipes were developed at a time when meats came from mature, fatty animals, and so were fairly tolerant of overcooking.The lamb of America is more like that of France and comes off exceedingly well when cooked to the rare or medium-rare stage." ---"Lamb For All Tastes," Craig Claiborne with Pierre Franey, New York Times, March 31, 1985 (p. "A Chicken in Every Pot" airline chicken American bison & buffalo bacon bear beef beef Stroganoff beef Wellington beefalo blood booya brawn Brunswick stew burgoo carpetbag steak Chateaubriand chicken chicken a la King chicken & waffles chicken burgers chicken cacciatora chicken chasseur chicken Cordon Bleu chicken Francese chicken franks chicken fried steak chicken Kiev chicken Marengo chicken nuggets chicken parm chicken salad chicken sandwich (fast food) chicken Tartare chicken tikka masala chicken Vesuvio chicken Wellington Christmas goose city chicken confit coq au vin corn dogs & Pronto Pups corned beef coronation chicken country captain chicken crab croquettes cube steak deep fried turkey deer donkers dormice duck duck a l'orange finger steaks foie gras frankfurters fried chicken goats gravy Guinea fowl ham head cheese horsemeat hot dogs Irish stew Jamaican Jerk jambalaya jerky kebabs King Ranch chicken Kobe beef lamb lamb & mint Lebanon balogna lobster London broil marrow bones meatloaf & meatballs minced meats & hash mincemeat pies mole poblano mutton mutton birds New England Boiled Dinner osso buco pastrami paupiettes Peking duck pemmican picnic ham pigeon pigs in Blankets porcupines pork & applesauce pork & beans pork & sauerkraut pork steak pot roast pulled pork Salisbury steak sausages of Italy scallops shark steaks sheep shrimp Sloppy joes SPAM spiral carved ham squab squirrel steak au Poivre steak Diane steak Tartare Swedish meatballs sweetbreads Swiss steak tempura Tetrazzini Toad-in-the-hole tri-tip steak Turducken Turkey & cranberry sauce turkey & dressing turkey bacon unturkey venison wiener schnitzel zoo animals According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "rare," counterbalancing "done" describing the doneness of meat, descends from the word "rear," meaning imperfectly cooked or underdone. The earliest print reference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa 1615. They commend the wether almost raw, but pork cooked until it almost melts [that is, until it falls apart]. And when the cooking goes on for hgours, the fiber bundles fray away from each other, and even tough meat begins to fall apart... Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature. The fluid release is at its maximum when the meat is only lightly cooked, or done 'rare.' As the temperature increases and the meat dries out, physical change gives way to chemical change, and to the development of armo as cell molecules break apart and recombine with each other to form new molecules that not only smell meaty, but also fruity and floral, nutty and grassy (esters, ketones, aldehydes)... In the realm of smoked ham, salt beef, and dried fish, the concept of a "doneness" scale from raw to overcooked did not exist.SM77) Recent wisdom promoting well done meats is understandable given outbreaks of food poisoning: "The penchant of Northeasterners for eating their beef rare may be why that part of the county recorded seven outbreaks of food poisoning traced to commercially prepared roast beef last year. 167 Coole endiffe, radish, new egs rosted reare, And late-prest cheese; which earthen dishes beare. Ovid Baucis & Philemon in Fables 159 New-laid Eggs, which Baucis busie Care Turn'd by a gentle Fire, and roasted rear. Recipes for hours-long braising or stewing were developed for mature animals with substantially cross-linked collagen that took a long time to dissolve into gelatin. 55) specifying length of time to achieve rare/medium/well done beefsteaks (by steak thickness). Well done times (only) for veal cutlets, veal chops, mutton chops, ham, pork chops and bacon. This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Medium/medium rare were introduced about this time. Originally only of eggs: slightly or imperfectly cooked, underdone. And indeed, among winged creatures they can eat with pleasure wood pigeons still running with blood and scarcely touched by fire.' Bruyerin advocated the middle way, warning that there would be a penalty to pay for eating either half-raw or 'melting' meat. 20th century USA "working" definitons [1902] "The American fashion of serving meat 'rare' or in a rather purple condition, is certainly objectionable. 8) [1932] "Stage to Which Meat is Cooked, Rare, Medium and Well Done. 54 To know when meate is rosted enough, for as too much rareness is vnwholsome, so too much drinesse is not nourishing. Without them, Sir, instead of beef or mutton, you might as well eat mahogany? The temperature there is lower than in the oven." ---"Cook Meat Slowly, Say Texas Experts," New York Times, December 22, 1942 (p. Food historians generally agree the discovery of cooking was accidental. 138) [1907] "The different degrees, designated as rare or underdone, medium rare, and well done, to which meat may be roasted are at present largely matters of individual opinion. There is no definate stage between a rare and meidum-done piece of meat or between a medium well-done one and a well-done one. Rorer's New Cook Book, Sarah Tyson Rorer [Arnold and Company: Philadelphia] 1902 (p. Some meats like veal and pork are cooked well done, while beef may be cooked rare. essay hoover institution optional other press publication reality Naturally there were serious problems in keeping the meat fresh, since mechanical refrigeration was unavailable. essay hoover institution optional other press publication reality




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