Essay on customs of india - what is a thesis statement in a rhetorical analysis









essay on customs of india

essay on customs of indiaEssay on customs of india -Although the largest and most famous buildings are well maintained, many smaller temples and older residential buildings are falling into disrepair.Hindu castes and Buddhist and animist ethnic groups were historically collapsed into a single caste hierarchy. Below them are alcohol-drinking ( matwali ) castes, which include Mongolian ethnic groups.Most residents eat a large rice meal twice a day, usually at midmorning and in the early evening.Foreign aid rarely goes to the neediest sectors of the population but is concentrate in urban areas, providing jobs for the urban middle class. Civil servants often were paid in land grants, governing their land on an absentee basis and collecting taxes from tenant-farming peasants.These customs, however, like most others, vary by caste-ethnic groups, and are changing rapidly to suit modern tastes. The large majority of the people are subsistence farmers who grow rice, maize, millet, barley, wheat, and vegetables.At the height of British rule in India, the Rana rulers incorporated Western architectural styles into palaces and public buildings.While land is still the principal measure of wealth, some castes that specialize in trade and commerce have fared better under modern capitalism than have landowning castes.The Indo-Nepalese migrated from India over several centuries; they practice Hinduism, have Caucasian features, and speak Indo-Aryan languages.Despite ethnic unrest, Nepalis have a strong sense of national identity and pride.Westernization is vying with Sanskritization as a cultural influence, and the ability to speak English is a mark of prestige and an asset in the job market.At such occasions, it is customary to seat guests on woven grass mats on the ground outside one's home, often in lines separating castes and honoring people of high status.The current king's palace's scale and fortress-like quality illustrate the distance between king and commoner.Nepal's export goods include carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute, and grain. Imports include gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products, and fertilizers. Historically, caste was loosely correlated with occupational specialization.In nationalistic rhetoric the metaphor of a garden with many different kinds of flowers is used to symbolize national unity amid cultural diversity.Although caste distinctions are no longer supported by law, caste relations have shaped present-day social stratification: Untouchables continue to be the poorest sector of society, while the upper castes tend to be wealthy and politically dominant.Tailors, smiths, and cobblers were the lowest, untouchable castes, and priests and warriors were the two highest Hindu castes.Fast-moving, snow-fed rivers cut through the hills and mountains from north to south, carving deep valleys and steep ridges.However, territorial clashes with the Chinese in the late eighteenth century and the British in the early nineteenth century pushed the borders back to their current configuration. To unify a geographically and culturally divided land, Shah perpetuated the culture and language of high-caste Hindus and instituted a social hierarchy in which non-Hindus as well as Hindus were ranked according to caste-based principles.Though some urbanites use Western utensils, it is more common to eat with the hands. Nepal is named for the Kathmandu Valley, where the nation's founder established a capital in the late eighteenth century.essay on customs of indiaThe Kathmandu Valley has a population of approximately 700,000. After conquering much of the territory that constitutes modern Nepal, King Prithvi Narayan Shah (1743–1775) established Gorkhali (Nepali) as the national language.The few roads are difficult to maintain and subject to landslides and flooding.Other significant symbols are the emblems (tree, plow, sun) used to designate political parties.Different groups within this category practice Buddhism, animism, or Hinduism.Nepal is home to the Himalayan Mountains, including Mount Everest.Since the institution of a multiparty democracy in 1990, linguistic issues have emerged as hotly debated topics. The culture has many symbols from Hindu and Buddhist sources.Members of lower castes have been excluded from political representation and economic opportunities.Orthodox high-caste Hindus are strictly vegetarian and do not drink alcohol.The large majority of imported goods pass through India. Although roads connect many major commercial centers, in much of the country goods are transported by porters and pack animals.Nepali is an Indo-European language derived from Sanskrit with which it shares and most residents speak at least some Nepali, which is the medium of government, education, and most radio and television broadcasts.under the Licchavis, an Indo-Aryan people from northern India, and after the migration of Hindus from India during the Mughal period.Since the late 1950s, tourism has increased rapidly; trekking, mountaineering, white-water rafting, and canoeing have drawn tourists from the West and other parts of Asia.In poorer and higher-altitude areas, where rice is scarce, the staple is dhiro, a thick mush made of corn or millet.In cities, most men and an increasing number of women wear Western clothes.Rice generally is served with dal, a lentil dish, and tarkari, a cooked vegetable.Rural architecture is generally very simple, reflecting the building styles of different caste and ethnic groups, the materials available, and the climate.The birth of the nation is dated to Prithvi Narayan Shah's conquest of the Kathmandu Valley kingdoms in 1768.Nepali culture represents a fusion of Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Mongolian influences, the result of a long history of migration, conquest, and trade. Nepal is a roughly rectangular country with an area of 147,181 square miles (381,200 square kilometers).Since the 1950s, efforts have been made to protect the rights of tenants, but without the redistribution of land. Nearly every acre of arable land has been farmed intensively.Early development focused on the use of jute, sugar, and tea; modern industries include the manufacturing of brick, tile, and construction materials; paper making; grain processing; vegetable oil extraction; sugar refining; and the brewing of beer. Nepal is heavily dependent on trade from India and China. essay on customs of india Jute, sugar, cigarettes, beer, matches, shoes, chemicals, cement, and bricks are produced locally.Kathmandu and the neighboring cities of Patan and Bhaktapur are known for pagoda-style and shikhara temples, Buddhist stupas, palaces, and multistory brick houses with elaborately carved wooden door frames and screened windows.There are scattered tribes of indigenous Nepalis, whose origins probably predate the arrival of Indo- and Tibeto-Nepalese peoples.Village houses tend to be clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. Many Nepalis do not feel that they have eaten a real meal unless it has included a sizable helping of rice.These symbols of ethnic identity along with distinctive forms of music, dance, and cuisine, continue to be important.Sacred Hindu and Buddhist sites and the spectacular mountains draw tourists and pilgrims and give citizens a sense of importance in the world.Much of earliest industrial development was accomplished with the help of private entrepreneurs from India and foreign aid from the Soviet Union, China, and the West.Changes in the economic and political system have opened some opportunities for members of historically disadvantaged castes. Caste and ethnic groups are often identifiable by both physical traits and styles of dress and ornamentation.This poverty can be attributed to scarce natural resources, a difficult terrain, landlocked geography, and a weak infrastructure but also to feudal land tenure systems, government corruption, and the ineffectiveness of development efforts. Historically, a handful of landlords held most agricultural land.The Hindu Malla dynasties reigned in the Kathmandu Valley between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, encouraging tolerance toward Buddhism and an orthodox, caste-oriented form of Hinduism.For many people Nepali is secondary to the language of their ethnic group or region.Although trade has brought distinct ethnic groups into contact, the geography has created diversity in language and subsistence practices. Although infant mortality rates are extremely high, fertility rates are higher.Other natural resources, such as rivers and flora and fauna are a source of national pride. The population consists of numerous racial, cultural, and linguistic groups that often are divided into three broad categories: Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, and indigenous Nepalese.The result is a country with over thirty-six ethnic groups and over fifty languages. High birth rates in rural areas have led to land shortages, forcing immigration to the Terai, where farmland is more plentiful, and to urban areas, where jobs are available.Carpet and garment manufacturing has increased significantly, providing foreign exchange.Traditionally, caste rules also dictate who may eat with or accept food from whom.With the exception of locally grown fruits and vegetables, many products are imported from India and, to a lesser extent, China and the West.Nepal historically was one of the least urbanized countries in the world, but urbanization is accelerating, especially in the capital, and urban sprawl and pollution have become serious problems.Since unification in the late eighteenth century and through the hundred-year period of Rana rule, the culture of hill Hindus, Parbatiya, has been dominant.The untouchable castes were not permitted to own land, and their civil liberties were circumscribed by law. essay on customs of india Deforestation for wood and animal fodder has created serious erosion. The majority of commercial activity takes place at small, family-owned shops or in the stalls of sidewalk vendors.Most families eat from individual plates while seated on the floor.To the south, west, and east it is bordered by Indian states; to the north lies Tibet.Caste discrimination is officially illegal but has not disappeared.Food is served on leaf plates, which can be easily disposed of.The lowest castes could not own property or receive an education.However, caste rules are relaxing to suit the modern world, and the tourist economy is making restaurants a common feature of urban life. At weddings and other important life-cycle events, feasts are generally hosted by the families directly involved, and numerous guests are invited.The Tibeto-Nepalese have distinctively Mongolian features and speak Tibeto-Burmese languages; these groups occupy the higher hills and mountainous areas.Other castes may drink alcohol and eat pork and even beef.At low altitudes, agriculture is the principal means of subsistence, while at higher altitudes agropastoralism prevails. However, few families own more than a small number of cows, water buffalo, or yaks because the mountainous topography does not provide grazing land for large animals.Prominent among symbols for the nation as a whole are the national flower and bird, the rhododendron and danfe; the flag; the plumed crown worn by the kings; and the crossed kukhris (curved knives) of the Gurkhas, mercenary regiments that have fought for the British Army in a number of wars.Members of the higher castes were particularly reluctant to eat food prepared by strangers.From the summit of Everest, the topography plunges to just above sea level at the Gangetic Plain on the southern border.The culture of caste Hindus is the national "prestige culture." In a process of "Sanskritization," members of diverse groups have acquired the customs, tastes, and habits of the ruling elite.Images of the current monarch and the royal family are displayed in many homes and places of business.By privileging the language and culture of high-caste Hindus, the state has marginalized non-Hindu and low-caste groups.Resentment in recent years has led to the organization of ethnopolitical parties, agitation for minority rights, and talk about the formation of a separate state for Mongolian ethnic groups.The Newars of the Kathmandu Valley have a caste system that has been absorbed into the national caste hierarchy.This drop divides the country into three horizontal zones: the high mountains, the lush central hills, and the flat, arid Terai region in the south.Migration into cities has led to over-crowding and pollution. essay on customs of india Most residents eat a large rice meal twice a day, usually at midmorning and in the early evening. essay on customs of india

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