Change over time essay russia - what is a thesis statement in a rhetorical analysis









change over time essay russia

change over time essay russiaChange over time essay russia -Social and economic history viewed the history of Russia through the prism of its supposed backwardness in comparison with Europe and the west.More recently, scholars using newly available information have begun to delve into the roots of Russian demographic changes and the long-term patterns underlying them.In the 20th century, the history of ideas worked its way through all of the historical-philosophical material which the reciprocal Russian and European discourses of self-reassurance in the 18th and 19th centuries had produced.The shifting of Russia from the north to the east of Europe in European perceptions of the other in the first half of the 19th century is a prime example of this.In the enormous territory of Russia, he argued, historical processes move at a slower pace than in the smaller spaces of Europe.In 1920, the average Russian woman was expected to give birth to about 7.5 children in her lifetime; in 1994, that number had fallen to 1.4.The historical genealogy of that state was traced with reference to the Marxist model, which viewed feudalism, capitalism and socialism as following in sequence.The imperative of provincializing the category of Europe, including the removal of its normative position with regard to other regions of the world, has also affected depictions of the long-running topic of "Russia and Europe".Thus, comparisons between the two regions must be incorporated into a history of reciprocal perceptions and interactions.The central focus is placed on perceptions and interactions in the areas of politics, economics, religion and culture.Instead of drawing a hard distinction between the supposedly closed Muscovite Russia and the Europeanized empire ruled from St.This trend sharply distinguishes Russia from other industrialized nations, where the tendency is for women to postpone marriage and childbearing.This tendency towards fertility at younger ages is reflected in marriage patterns.Consequently, physicians, architects, weaponsmiths and officers from Europe were a permanent fixture among the staff serving the Muscovite state in the 15th–17th centuries.The chronological depiction below of the relationship between Russia and Europe primarily attempts to examine popular concepts of Russia and Europe in a more nuanced way.To shed light on these issues, RAND and the Center for Demography and Human Ecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences invited a group of Russian demographers to present the results of their research.Some of the demographic trends currently affecting Russia are the continuation of long-term patterns.Cultural history has replaced social-historical and economic-historical comparisons and the focus on high culture and imagology, which was typical of the history of ideas, with cultural transfer.Petersburg from the 18th century onward, I will attempt to point out multiple contrasts.It was primarily concerned with the historical legitimisation of the October Revolution and of the first socialist state in the world.change over time essay russiaSoviet historiography only related the history of Russia to European contexts in an indirect way.In individual cases, there was also a degree of overlap between these three approaches.A number of transfer processes can be identified for Muscovite Russia of the 16th and particularly the 17th century, while many trends in the 18th century demonstrate how keen people were to experiment with European influences.World-system historical approaches attempted to explain the supposed backwardness of Russia not endogenously, but in terms of interdependence in a global economic division of labour between peripheries, semi-peripheries and core societies in the modern period.Abortions are easily obtained free of charge at virtually all clinics, while contraceptives have been unavailable.Similar patterns have emerged in the United States and other Western countries (see Figure 2).Others are by-products of recent events, although not necessarily the reforms of the 1990s.Thus, the history of Imperial Russia could be written as a history of state reforms, which almost invariably did not yield the desired results and most certainly did not close the developmental gap between European societies and Russia.In addition to the decline in births, the age patterns of childbearing have been changing.The incidence of abortion in Russia is the world's highest.In 1992, Russia's population entered a period of negative growth--that is, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births combined with the number of immigrants.This was a first in the peacetime history of Russia.Between 19, the average marrying age of women in Russia fell by 4.2 years, from 26.2 to 22.0.Finally, global history deserves mention as the most recent factor in the depiction of the history of Russia and Europe.Despite the procedure's prevalence, it frequently poses health risks for Russian women because it is often performed without proper hygiene or anesthesia."Russia and Europe", "west and east" now no longer appear as structural constraints, but as contexts in which actors choose to position themselves in particular ways.For Russian historians in the 19th century, it was equally central. Karamzin (1766–1826) published a history of the Russian state in which he depicted the emergence of autocracy as being unique and specific to Russia on the one hand, while on the other hand describing the history of Russia as being of equal importance to the national histories of other European states. Solovev (1820–1879) viewed Russian history from a Hegelian perspective as following a general pattern of progression which can be observed in world history – but under specifically Russian conditions.Since the 1990s, cultural history has fundamentally changed the view of Russia and Europe.The depiction of this relationship occurred in constant correspondence with politics, the press and also mythical motifs, and reflected changing cognitive maps of However, opinion regarding the positioning of Russia with regard to the present and history of Europe was not only important in Europe.These events are widely seen as posing a national crisis for Russia. change over time essay russia Abortion has become Russia's main method of birth control.Finally, the status of actors, their options for action and their autobiographical practices have received far greater importance in recent research.This becomes clear when Russian elites appear outside Europe as proponents of a European civilizing mission, and, conversely, when in African and Asian perceptions Russia is categorized as belonging to Europe.Based on popular, nonprofessional interpretations of available vital statistics, some are calling "to save Russia from depopulation." As a result, the general public has been misled about population issues.In the American academic system, Eurasia has increasingly emerged as a region in which the history of Russia is located.In his comprehensive account of Russian history, Vasilii O.Still others are harder to explain and have probably been exacerbated by the reforms and the current economic slump.This demographic transition is characteristic of industrial and industrializing nations and is usually associated with greater numbers of women joining the work force and increased divorce and cohabitation, all of which tend to reduce family size and drive down fertility rates.In this, travellers also appear as important intermediaries.The average citizen is likely to draw a direct connection between the current economic slump and a demographic crisis.The underlying causes of these phenomena had previously not been studied in great depth.Policymakers and analysts are eager to learn more about the causes and consequences of these trends so that they can define appropriate policy options as the reform process continues.While the Orthodox Church highlighted and defended the religious differences and official Russia did not seek to engage with European knowledge in any serious way, the Russian court nonetheless had no problem with employing foreigners as experts where this proved useful to the Muscovite state.Kliuchevskii (1841–1911) pointed out that even before Peter the Great (1672–1725, reigned 1682/1689–1725)[] a noticeable Europeanization of Russia had occurred, with baroque culture and humanist ideals of education being transferred to Russia from In 1925, Sergei F.This historic population decline has been met with increasing concern in some Russian circles.Julie Da Vanzo and David Adamson Recent demographic trends in Russia have caused widespread public concern.As a result, for the first time in Russian history, the annual number of deaths has exceeded the number of births (see Figure 1).This alarmist view ignores long-term trends in fertility.Contributing to this shift toward earlier childbearing and the low fertility rate has been Russia's high rate of abortion.Transfers to Russia, but also the reception of Russia in Europe and the world are now central research topics. change over time essay russia Platonov (1860–1933) described the extent of contact between Muscovite Russia and Europe in the 15th to the 17th centuries, impressively summarizing the state of knowledge on this subject in pre-revolutionary historiography.Encounters between Protestants and Catholics of the confessional period and members of the Orthodox Church tended to highlight religious differences.Their delegations were met at the border of the Muscovite state and accompanied through the land and to the court by a servant of the grand prince (from 1547 tsar). Contact with Muscovites and other foreigners was regulated and was often prohibited.The aggregate picture that emerged from this groundbreaking work is more complicated than the "crisis" language suggests.Once again, experiences in the present, such as the end of the Soviet Union and the transformation of cognitive maps which resulted from it, have demonstrated how much they can influence academic knowledge.Civic leaders and the general public are especially concerned about the effects these trends may have on the progress of reform--for example, how a shrinking working-age population will support a growing number of elderly citizens.In the historiography, the topic of "Russia and Europe" has a tradition of its own.Opponents of reform have exploited these trends for political purposes.Diplomatic missions had to be registered in advance in .Compounding these challenges, the population is aging rapidly--a trend that will accelerate over the next two decades--and immigration continues to increase, posing thorny political and social problems for a nation historically accustomed to a net outflow of people.Cultural misunderstanding in various areas such as diplomatic protocol, eating habits and the treatment of disease and death were very common occurrences for every traveller from Europe in Russia.In many Western countries, the peak childbearing age for women has grown older and now falls between 25 and 29; by contrast, the peak age in Russia has become younger, occurring between ages 20-24.Women try to achieve their desired number of children at a young age and then abort subsequent pregnancies without fear of secondary sterility, which often results from frequent abortions.Life expectancy, especially among working-age males, has dropped precipitously.They have depicted these events as direct outcomes of reform and even as a conspiracy aimed at destroying the Russian state.Russia is experiencing unusually high death rates from nonnatural causes, many related to alcoholism.In 1992, there were 225 abortions per 100 births, far exceeding the second highest rate--Romania's--which was 157 per 100 births.Research into cognitive maps has brought a new awareness of the cultural construction of concepts of space into historiography.However, Russia's fertility patterns have followed their own unique path over the past two decades.Explicit comparisons between Russia and Europe did not fit into this historiographical endeavour. change over time essay russia In the 20th century, the history of ideas worked its way through all of the historical-philosophical material which the reciprocal Russian and European discourses of self-reassurance in the 18th and 19th centuries had produced. change over time essay russia

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