Annotated photographic essay - what is a thesis statement in a rhetorical analysis









annotated photographic essay

annotated photographic essayAnnotated photographic essay -Radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into organic chemical energy in the form of .Tropical tree ferns possess erect columnar trunks and large compound (divided) leaves more than 5 metres (about 16 feet) long.They reproduce by passing their genetic information to descendants that resemble them.Pollen is a unit of genetic material as well as part of the seed-formation process., and new species are continually being described, particularly from previously unexplored tropical areas of the world.There are two types of liverworts (also called hepatics) based on reproductive features and thallus structure.Cycads are palmlike in general appearance, with an unbranched columnar trunk and a crown of large pinnately compound (divided) leaves.Although all living lycopods are small herbaceous plants, some extinct types were large trees.Primary tissues contribute to the longitudinal growth of the stem, or primary growth.The vascular tissue is organized into a poorly developed central cylinder in the stem.).Their cells undergo complex metabolic reactions that result in the production of chemical energy, nutrients, and new structural components.Lycopods are differentiated into stem, root, and leaf (microphylls).They are presently distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres.In some ferns the sexes are separate, meaning a gametophyte will bear only male or female sex organs.The seed thus contains and protects the embryonic plant and, as the primary dispersal unit of the seed plants, represents a significant improvement over the spore, with its limited capacity for survival.There are plants, for example, that do not produce their food by photosynthesis but rather are parasitic on other living plants.The more numerous ) liverworts have a ribbonlike, or strap-shaped, body that grows flat on the ground.However, bryophytes have multicellular reproductive structures, whereas those of green algae are unicellular, and bryophytes are mostly terrestrial and have complex plant bodies, whereas the green algae are primarily aquatic and have less-complex forms.) that usually are a single cell layer thick, have a costa (midrib), and are spirally arranged on a stemlike axis (caulid).Land plants face severe environmental threats or difficulties, such as desiccation, drastic changes in ) that covers the plant body, preventing excess water loss.Green aerial stems have longitudinal ridges and furrows extending the length of the internodes, and stems are jointed (articulated). Branches, when they occur, are borne in whorls at the node, as are the scale leaves. The Sphenophyta are an independent line of vascular plant evolution that had its origin in the Gymnosperms and angiosperms (flowering plants) share with ferns a dominant, independent sporophyte generation; the presence of vascular tissue; differentiation of the plant body into root, stem, and leaf derived from a bipolar embryo (having stem and root-growing apices); and similar photosynthetic pigments.annotated photographic essayA cone is a modified shoot with a single axis, on which is borne a spirally arranged series of pollen- or ovule-bearing scales or bracts.Venation of fern leaves is usually open dichotomous (forking into two equal parts).Various parts of the plant (e.g., leaves) are the energy sources that support The life histories of plants include two phases, or generations, one of which is diploid (the nuclei of the cells contain two sets of chromosomes), whereas the other is haploid (with one set of chromosomes).Although the lower vascular plants have adapted to terrestrial life, they are similar to bryophytes in that, as an apparent vestige of their aquatic ancestry, all produce motile (flagellated) male gametes (antherozoids, or sperm) and must rely on water for fertilization to take place.Fern stems never become woody (composed of secondary tissue containing lignin), because all tissues of the plant body originate at the stem apex.) and uncurl in a type of leaf development called circinate vernation. The leaf types are differentiated into rachis (axis of a compound leaf), pinnae (primary divisions), and pinnules (ultimate segments of a pinna).In comparing ferns and seed plants and their life histories, certain significant differences are seen.As a group, the lycopods were prominent in the great coal-forming swamp forests of the (359 million to 299 million years ago).Plants evolved from aquatic ancestors and have subsequently migrated over the entire surface of Earth, inhabiting tropical, Arctic, desert, and Alpine regions.No definition of the kingdom completely excludes all nonplant organisms or even includes all plants.Plants play a vital role in the maintenance of life on Earth.The sporophyte and gametophyte generations of plants are structurally quite dissimilar.(spore-bearing leaf) and as such can bear structures that are associated with reproduction.Each one of the patches (called a ) capable of photosynthesis.Before the development of vascular tissues, the only plants of considerable size existed in aquatic environments where support and water conduction were not necessary. The stem conducts water and minerals absorbed by the root system upward to various parts of the stem and leaves; stems also conduct carbohydrates manufactured through the process of photosynthesis from the leaves to various parts of the stem and root system.They sometimes resemble small umbrellas and are called antheridiophores and archegoniophores.are a diverse group of plants technically classified in the division Filicophyta.These carbohydrates, produced in photosynthesis, are broken down in a process called respiration; the smaller units of the sugar molecule and its products fuel numerous metabolic a relic of the medieval belief in the “doctrine of signatures,” which held that the external form of a plant provided a clue to which diseased body organ could be cured by a preparation made from that particular plant.They range in size and complexity from small floating aquatic plants less than 2 cm (0.8 inch) long to tall tree ferns 20 metres (65 feet) high.Among seed plants, as in ferns, the stem tissues that arise directly from the shoot apex are called primary tissues. annotated photographic essay Each seed has an embryonic plant (sporophyte), food-storage tissue, and hardened protective covering (seed coat).The diploid generation is known as the , produces the sex cells, or gametes.The capsule is capped by an operculum (lid), which falls off, exposing a ring of teeth (the peristome) that regulates the dispersal of spores.The sexes are always separate, resulting in male and female plants (i.e., cycads are dioecious).The complete life cycle of a plant thus involves an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Secondary growth, resulting in an increase in the width of the axis, is produced by .They have a high degree of internal structural differentiation into photosynthetic and storage zones. Liverworts have an alternation of generations similar to that of mosses, and, as with mosses, the gametophyte generation is dominant.Modifications of roots, stems, and leaves have enabled species of vascular plants to survive in a variety of habitats encompassing diverse and even extreme environmental conditions.Individual trees are typically monoecious (male and female cones are borne on the same tree).Some plants have returned to an aquatic habitat in either fresh or salt water.They dominated the landscape about 200 million years ago.The sporophytes, however, are not microscopic and are often borne on specialized structures.They respond to internal and external stimuli in a self-preserving manner.In the most advanced seed plants, the male gametes (sperm) are carried to the egg by a later extension of the or animals.When growth conditions are favourable, a series of brown patches appear on the undersurface of the sporophylls.Multicellular anchor the gametophyte to the substrate.Details of the life history are often a reflection of a plant’s adaptation to a terrestrial mode of life and may characterize a particular group; for example, the most highly evolved plants reproduce by means of , they depend on their immediate surroundings for an adequate supply of moisture.This unusual group of small herbaceous plants is characterized by a leafless and rootless body possessing a stem that exhibits a primitive dichotomous type of branching: it forks into equal halves.Because they possess vascular tissues, these plants have true stems, leaves, and roots.The gametophyte produces multicellular sex organs ( cells. annotated photographic essay Because the egg is retained and fertilized within the archegonium, the early stages of the developing sporophyte are protected and nourished by the gametophytic tissue.Some, however, have become adapted to totally aquatic habitats; others have become adapted to alternately wet and dry environments by growing during wet periods and becoming dormant during dry intervals.Although bryophytes are widely distributed, occurring in practically all parts of the world, none are found in salt water.The young undifferentiated sporophyte is called an that invaded land more than 400 million years ago.Fern leaves often have prominent epidermal hairs and large chaffy scales.The ability of vascular plants to flourish in so many different habitats is a key factor in their having become the dominant group of terrestrial plants. Collectively, the latter four groups are sometimes referred to as pteridophytes, because each reproduces by spores liberated from dehiscent sporangia (free sporing).Some animals possess plantlike characteristics, such as the lack of mobility (e.g., Despite such differences, plants share the following features common to all living things.A second major difference between the vascular plants and bryophytes is that the larger, more conspicuous generation among vascular plants is the sporophytic phase of the life cycle. are supported by the stem and are oriented in a manner conducive to maximizing the amount of leaf area involved in trapping sunlight for use in photosynthesis.The moss gametophyte is an independent plant and is the familiar, erect “leafy” shoot.Other species have gametophytes bearing both sex organs.Sphenophytes are differentiated into stem, leaf (microphylls), and root.As a group, ferns are either terrestrial or epiphytic (growing upon another plant).were a diverse and prominent group of vascular plants during the Carboniferous Period, when some genera attained great size in the coal-forming swamp forests.Seeds represent an important evolutionary innovation within the plant kingdom.Some species form distinct cones or strobili, whereas others do not.The male cone, or (251 million to 65.5 million years ago).Sporangia are positioned on the upper (adaxial) surface of the leaf (sporophyll).In contrast to bryophytes, in which the sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte during its entire existence, the fern sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte for nutrition only during the early phase of its development; thereafter, the fern sporophyte is free-living.Extant members of Lycophyta occur in both temperate and tropical regions and represent the survivors of a group of vascular plants that was extremely diverse and numerous.Finally, the spores of seed plants are male and female, as are the sporangia that contain them. annotated photographic essay They reproduce by passing their genetic information to descendants that resemble them. annotated photographic essay

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