A cause and effect essay should not include a(n) - what is a thesis statement in a rhetorical analysis









a cause and effect essay should not include a(n)

a cause and effect essay should not include a(n)A cause and effect essay should not include a(n) -You loop one 5-10 minute free-writing after another, so you have a sequence of free-writings, each more specific than the other.The dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction have come to occupy center stage in international politics.In conventional bombs, the explosion is created by a chemical reaction, which involves the rearrangement of atoms to form new molecules.A key to using the journalists' questions is to make them flexible enough to account for the specific details of your topic.In addition, some analysts include radiological materials as well as missile technology and delivery systems such as aircraft and ballistic missiles.The heat from a nuclear explosion is so intense that nearly all materials at the center of the explosion (epicenter) are immediately vaporized.Especially compared with nuclear weapons, chemical weapons are considerably easier and cheaper to manufacture.Fusion can only happen at extremely high temperatures and pressure.The amount of energy released in such a nuclear reaction is enormous—many orders of magnitude greater than that released in a chemical reaction resulting in the rearrangement of molecules.There is incomplete and contradictory information available on the nuclear stockpiles of India, Pakistan and Israel.Manhattan Project scientist Wolfgang Panofsky noted recently in a presentation commemorating the 60th anniversary of the first nuclear test, that nuclear weapons have increasingly come to be seen by some as: "symbols of strength and prestige, and tools for diplomatic bargaining.If these neutrons are absorbed by other nuclei, they can, in turn, split, also releasing neutrons and setting off what is known as a chain reaction.Over the past century, various states have built and stockpiled lethal arsenals of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and the materials to produce them.Although the term WMD provides a convenient shorthand for mass-casualty weapons, there are very important differences in the characteristics, effects and military roles of various nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Arms Control Association offers excellent resources on a wide variety of issues pertaining to WMD, including an overview of key arms control agreements and analyses of timely issues.Clustering your ideas lets you see them visually in a different way, so that you can more readily understand possible directions your paper may take. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace provides a comprehensive website that includes an assessment of weapons, updates on proliferation concerns, and useful links. Extensive resources and a chronology of the nuclear age are available at the website of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, international consortium of research institutes provides a variety of updates and analysis on cooperative efforts to reduce the threat of WMD, under the auspices of Strengthening the Global Partnership, through the Center for Strategic and International Studies.On average, these weapons each possess an explosive power 20 times greater than the nuclear weapons that destroyed much of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan and killed roughly 250,000 people during World War II.While states have officially committed to eliminating all stockpiles of chemical weapons and offensive biological weapons and to strive for the elimination of nuclear weapons, nine countries currently possess nuclear weapons - Britain, China, France, India, Israel (assumed), North Korea (claimed), Pakistan, Russia, and the United States - and several states are believed to possess chemical and/or biological warfare agents. forces in Afghanistan that Al Qaeda was actively seeking nuclear materials.Biological weapons, which make use of lethal bacteria, viruses, or toxins, are distinguished by their profoundly uncontrollable nature: once unleashed, a biological agent such as smallpox can spread quickly to cause an epidemic in human populations.a cause and effect essay should not include a(n)And it lies no less in the consequent necessity for new and more effective methods by which mankind may control the use of its new powers.When you have finished four or five rounds of looping, you will begin to have specific information that indicates what you are thinking about a particular topic.It reviews their history, significant governmental policies and international agreements, and promising strategies to reduce the dangers of these deadly weapons. Also included are a selected bibliography and additional useful links for further exploration.Meanwhile, the light produced by a nuclear explosion can be seen from hundreds of miles away.Five useful strategies are brainstorming, clustering, free writing, looping, and asking the six journalists' questions Brainstorming, also called listing, is a process of generating a lot of information within a short time by building on the association of previous terms you have mentioned. Locate clusters of interest to you, and use the terms you attached to the key ideas as departure points for your paper.While the mass killing of human beings is not a new feature of warfare, weapons of mass destruction (WMD) pose an unprecedented constellation of challenges to peace and security.Unfortunately, the current ban on offensive biological warfare does not have any enforcement mechanisms, such as international inspections or rules governing research and development of possible bioweapons like anthrax.Negotiations to establish mechanisms to verify compliance and assure enforcement of the ban on offensive biological weapons have been unsuccessful; the most recent effort broke down in 2002 because the United States refused to allow biological weapons inspections on its soil.The same rules that apply to free-writing apply to looping: write quickly, do not edit, and do not stop. Then, read through your free-writing, looking for interesting topics, ideas, phrases, or sentences. A variation on looping is to have a classmate circle ideas in your free-writing that interests him or her.The core of a fission bomb is made of either plutonium or highly enriched uranium.There are growing concerns, though, about the likelihood of future use of biological weapons in light of the dynamism of biomedical technology and advances in the field of biotechnology.Thus the energy available equals the mass multiplied by 9,000,000,000,000,000,000 (or the square of the speed of light represented in meters per second).You may even have the basis for a tentative thesis or an improved idea for an approach to your assignment when you have finished.You will be able to distinguish how the ideas fit together, especially where there is an abundance of ideas.Several countries have developed and maintained active biological weapons programs, despite the fact that the 1925 Geneva Convention prohibits the use of germ weapons in war and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) prohibits states from developing, retaining, and transferring these weapons.Even greater uncertainty surrounds the status of North Korea's nuclear program, but some analysts estimate that North Korea may have already built as many as 13 nuclear weapons. Oppenheimer, who headed the scientists' efforts in this top-secret program wrote in 1946 that: The truly radical character of atomic weapons lies neither in the suddenness with which they emerged from laboratories and the secret industries, nor in the fact that they exploit an energy qualitatively different in origin from all earlier sources.In a fusion weapon, such a state is created by using a fission explosion (i.e. There is no theoretical limit to the explosive force of a fusion weapon.As a result, a nuclear bomb using one kilogram of plutonium could have the same explosive force as approximately 15 million kilograms of the conventional explosive TNT.Many aspects of the current nuclear predicament were accurately foreseen in the immediate aftermath of the U. Manhattan Project that initially developed the first atomic bombs. It lies in their vastly greater powers of destruction, in the vastly reduced effort needed for such destruction.Plutonium or highly enriched uranium are the only materials known that can, under carefully designed circumstances, achieve such a devastatingly powerful, self-sustaining fissile chain reaction. a cause and effect essay should not include a(n) The term "weapon of mass destruction" (WMD) is used to characterize a variety of weapons that share two key features: their potential for large-scale destruction and the indiscriminate nature of their effects, notably against civilians.Pre-writing strategies use writing to generate and clarify ideas.The technologies available to create and disperse biological agents are becoming more sophisticated and widely available.Typically, fusion weapons are 10 to 100 times as explosive as the fission bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Although biological weapons are highly dangerous, they have only rarely been used in war or in terrorist attacks.WWW.Data and analysis of trends and developments in military expenditures and arms production worldwide can be found at the website of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: Today, a handful of nations possess an inventory of about 30,000 nuclear weapons, roughly half the number that existed at the height of the Cold War.Many dangerous chemical constituents and so-called precursors of chemical weapons are currently commercially available.Since 1945, no nuclear weapon has been used in a conflict, even though combatants—including nuclear weapons states—have fought approximately 100 wars in the intervening 60 years.To understand the effects of a nuclear weapon, it is important to realize that a nuclear explosion produces several distinct forms of energy that each has its own devastating set of consequences: blast, thermal radiation, electromagnetic pulse, direct nuclear radiation, and fallout.Clustering is especially useful in determining the relationship between ideas.Loop your free-writing again, circling another interesting topic, idea, phrase, or sentence.For this reason, some argue that nuclear weapons should be distinguished from all other types of weapons of mass destruction.Fears of the terrorist use of WMD increased in the United States and around the world following the terrorist use of the biological warfare agent anthrax in the U. There is a greater than 50 percent probability of a nuclear strike on U. targets within a decade." Linton Brooks, a top ranking security official in the Bush administration, recently reported to Congress in March 2005 that: "The convergence of heightened terrorist activities and the associated revelations regarding the ease of moving materials, technology and information across borders has made the potential of terrorism involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD) the most serious threat facing the Nation. nuclear stockpiles and strategies for WMD non-proliferation.Free-writing is a process of generating a lot of information by writing non-stop.It allows you to focus on a specific topic, but forces you to write so quickly that you are unable to edit any of your ideas.An international agreement banning chemical weapons, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), entered into force in 1997.Nuclear weapons stand apart in the public imagination because of their horrific and unmatched destructive power: an all-out nuclear attack could annihilate billions of people within hours.In addition, many thousands more would die over time due to the lethal effects of radiation.Blast: The rapid release of energy in an explosion creates a shock wave equivalent to several thousand pounds of pressure per square inch (psi), enough many times over to crush most objects on earth.The thermal radiation also creates a fireball which rapidly expands outward, consuming oxygen and, combined with the blast effect, creating near total destruction for some distance from the epicenter. a cause and effect essay should not include a(n) Meanwhile, though, because nuclear weapons have been a part of state arsenals for more than half a century, there is a tendency among policymakers toward tacit acceptance about these weapons that can, in itself, be dangerous.Plutonium and uranium atoms are both heavy, meaning they have a large number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.Thermal radiation: Thermal radiation includes heat and light.Journalists traditionally ask six questions when they are writing assignments, 5 W's and 1 H: You can use these questions to explore the topic you are writing about for an assignment.Nuclear weapons, like conventional bombs, are designed to cause damage through an explosion that releases a large amount of energy in a short period of time.Because of governmental secrecy, it is impossible to give exact figures on the makeup and yield of global nuclear arsenals. An estimated 13,470 nuclear weapons are deployed worldwide by eight countries, with another 14,000 weapons held in reserve, according to the 2005 edition of the , published by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.Yet beyond this broad consensus, a wide gulf remains between critics and supporters of current U. This section of the PAWSS website offers in-depth information on the basic characteristics and current threats posed by nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. defense budget could provide enough funds to secure all the nuclear bomb material in the world, removing it from the black market for good.The treaty requires signatories to destroy existing stockpiles of chemical weapons and, as of the end of 2005, at least 2 million chemical weapons and 12 million metric tons of chemical agents have been destroyed and 175 countries have signed on to the agreement.In addition to the dangers posed by existing stockpiles of WMD, significant problems arise from the spread (or "proliferation") of WMD and related technologies to additional countries, nongovernmental actors, and non-state terrorist networks through clandestine programs and black-market sales of weapons and related technologies. The use of WMD by terrorists is generally viewed by security officials as a "worst case" scenario and thus attracts paramount concern. Perry warned at a meeting of the National Academy of Sciences in 2004, "I have never been more fearful of a nuclear detonation than now…Chemical weapons are notable because of the widespread and longstanding commercial and military experience in manufacturing their constituents. For interactive resources and information on the history and science of nuclear weapons, including a useful glossary of terms, see the Atomic Archive Website, supported by the National Science Foundation.Chemical and biological weapons also pose the terrifying potential of inflicting mass casualties.Learning to ask the appropriate questions about a topic takes practice, however.Looping is a free-writing technique that allows you to increasingly focus your ideas in trying to discover a writing topic.For instance, if your topic is the rise and fall of the Puget Sound tides and its effect on salmon spawning, you may have very little to say about The journalists' questions are a powerful way to develop a great deal of information about a topic very quickly.There are approximately 30,000 nuclear weapons in national stockpiles of the eight nuclear weapons states: Britain, China, France, India, Israel (assumed), North Korea (claimed), Pakistan, Russia, and the United States.As indicated above, there are two main types of nuclear weapons: fission weapons and fusion weapons.Overall, the total number of nuclear weapons has decreased in the past few years, yet all eight nuclear weapon states continue to maintain and modernize their arsenals and assert (either publicly or covertly) that nuclear weapons play a crucial role in their national security.While many writers have traditionally created outlines before beginning writing, there are other possible prewriting activities.By way of comparison, brick houses and human lungs can be crushed at about 30 psi pressure or less. a cause and effect essay should not include a(n) In conventional bombs, the explosion is created by a chemical reaction, which involves the rearrangement of atoms to form new molecules. a cause and effect essay should not include a(n)

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