Cause of the revolutionary war essay - what is a thesis statement in a rhetorical analysis









cause of the revolutionary war essay

cause of the revolutionary war essayCause of the revolutionary war essay -On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front.These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige.Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'.France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy.His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. No positions of strategic significance were captured. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.cause of the revolutionary war essayBut the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors.Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the ‘war would be over by Christmas'. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short.For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.he First World War was truly ‘the Great War’. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'.This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation.France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. cause of the revolutionary war essay Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command.Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation.This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated.By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918.The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and manœuvre to the strategic agenda.The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events.Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. cause of the revolutionary war essay On the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination.Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace.During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power.In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism.This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918.German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past.This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. Manœuvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. cause of the revolutionary war essay The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. cause of the revolutionary war essay

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